5 Frequently Asked Tax Questions: How Many 401k Can You Have? Insight on Rental Income, Bonuses, Car Purchases, and Virginia Taxes

When you sit down to navigate your personal finances, the tax implications of different decisions, and the long-term impacts of certain financial decisions, it can sometimes feel very overwhelming. You may have questions that are very specific to your situation, but understanding key aspects of your finances can empower you to make informed decisions. 

When it comes to retirement savings, you may wonder how many 401(k) plans you can have. It is possible to have multiple 401(k) accounts, typically one from your current job and others from previous employers. However, the IRS regulates the total annual contribution limits across all accounts.

If you’re receiving rental income from a family member, it’s important to know that this income generally needs to be reported on your tax return. The IRS mandates that all rental income be included in your taxable income, regardless of your relationship with the tenant. As for recouping employment incentives, if you’re contemplating leaving a job where you received a sign-on bonus, you may need to pay it back, often according to the terms outlined in your employment contract.

In the realm of taxes and business dealings, certain states provide benefits for specific groups; for example, Virginia offers a military retirement tax exemption for qualifying individuals. And when it comes to maximizing the use of your assets, you might consider if your business can purchase your personal vehicle. That’s an avenue some entrepreneurs explore to optimize tax deductions relating to business expenses. However, these transactions must adhere strictly to IRS rules to ensure that they are legitimate business expenses and not personal ones. 

In this article, we’re going to answer 5 of your frequently asked questions about 401Ks, rental income from family members, vehicle purchases for your business, and Virginia military retirement tax exemption. 

Can You Have Multiple 401Ks

When managing multiple 401(k) accounts, you need to be mindful of the IRS contribution limits, understand the nuances of rollovers and consolidations, and grasp the differences between Roth and Traditional 401(k)s to make informed decisions for your retirement plan.

Understanding 401(k) Limits

Your annual contribution limit across all 401(k) plans is set by the tax code and adjusted periodically for inflation. For instance, in 2024, you can contribute up to $23,000 in employee contributions if you are under 50 years old, and an additional $7,500 if you’re 50 or older, allowing for a total of $30,500. These contributions are cumulative, meaning that if you are contributing to multiple 401(k) accounts, the total amount must not exceed these limits.

  • Combined Contribution Limits (2023):
    • Under 50: $23,000
    • 50 or over: $30,500 (including catch-up contributions)

Remember that these limits apply to traditional and Roth 401(k) employee contributions combined.

Rollover and Consolidation Strategies

Managing multiple 401(k) accounts can become challenging. Consolidating them can simplify your financial landscape. There are two main types of rollovers: direct and indirect. With a direct rollover, your funds transfer from one retirement account directly to another without you touching the money. This is typically the recommended method as it avoids mandatory withholding taxes and potential penalties.

If you choose an indirect rollover, you will receive a check for the balance of your 401(k), which you must deposit into another retirement account within 60 days to avoid taxes and penalties. It’s imperative to complete the rollover within this period because failure to do so may lead to the amount being treated as a taxable distribution. Also, with an indirect rollover, your employer withholds 20% for taxes, which you must make up from other funds if you want to rollover the entire distribution.

  • Rollover Checklist:
    • Ensure rollover type (direct or indirect) suits your situation.
    • Complete rollovers within 60 days if indirect.
    • Understand tax withholdings and implications.

Roth 401(k) vs. Traditional 401(k)

You must decide between investing in a Roth or Traditional 401(k), each offering distinct tax advantages. Contributions to a Traditional 401(k) are made pre-tax, reducing your taxable income now, but you will pay taxes on earnings and distributions during retirement.

On the other hand, Roth 401(k) contributions are made with after-tax dollars. While this does not offer an immediate tax benefit, it does allow for tax-free growth and distributions, given certain conditions are met. This is helpful if you anticipate being in a higher tax bracket during retirement or prefer tax-free withdrawals later on.

  • Key Differences:
    • Traditional 401(k): Pay taxes on withdrawals, reduce current taxable income.
    • Roth 401(k): No taxes on qualified withdrawals, no immediate tax benefits.

When considering a rollover, a Traditional 401(k) can be rolled into a Traditional IRA without immediate tax consequences, while a Roth 401(k) can be rolled over to a Roth IRA. It’s essential to understand these options and their tax implications based on your current and future tax situations.

To learn more about how many 401 (k)s can you have, please check out our in-depth article on 401Ks.

Need professional assistance with your personal taxes?

Our team of experienced CPAs is here to help! Request a quote today and let us handle your tax needs with expertise and personalized solutions.

Do I Have to Report Rental Income From a Family Member?

Rental income reporting is essential for anyone renting out property, including to family members. It’s crucial to understand how to report this income on tax returns and what rental-related expenses can be deducted to reduce your tax liability.

Income Tax Guidelines for Family Rentals

When you rent property to a family member below fair market value, it’s seen as a personal use of the property. As such, you can report the rental income received, but you may be limited in terms of the rental expenses you can deduct. According to the IRS guidelines on rental real estate income, you must include the rent you receive in your income in the year it’s received, and accurately accounted for on your tax return using Schedule E (Form 1040).

Deducting Rental-Related Expenses

You can deduct expenses that are ordinary and necessary for managing, conserving, or maintaining the rental property. Common deductible expenses include mortgage interest, property tax, maintenance and repairs, insurance, utilities, and depreciation. Always keep detailed records as proof of these expenses. When it’s time to file, expenses can be deducted from your gross rental income on Schedule E.

Understanding Depreciation

Depreciation of rental property is a key deductible expense. It allows landlords to recover the cost of the property over time, accounting for wear and tear. To claim this deduction, you must use Form 4562 to report the depreciation starting in the year your rental property is first placed in service, and continue to do so annually over the property’s useful life as set out by the IRS. Publication 527 provides detailed information on how to handle depreciation of rental real estate. Remember that improvements are treated differently than maintenance and repairs for tax purposes and must be depreciated over time rather than deducted fully in the year the expense occurred.

Paying Back Sign On Bonus

When you receive a sign-on bonus, it’s essential to understand that the handling of this sum can significantly affect your finances. Review Repayment Terms and Conditions as well as the Tax Consequences of Repayment to make informed decisions.

Repayment Terms and Conditions

Your sign-on bonus may come with specific clauses detailing conditions under which you must repay it. Typically, these conditions are outlined in your employment contract. For instance, if you agree to work for the company for a minimum period and decide to leave earlier, you might be obligated to repay the full bonus or a prorated amount. It’s crucial to review your contract carefully to understand these terms and consider them when planning your tenure with the company.

Tax Consequences of Repayment

If you must repay your sign-on bonus, there are consequential tax implications. When you receive a bonus, it’s considered income and thus subject to federal taxes, possibly pushing you into a higher tax bracket. However, if you repay the bonus in a different tax year, obtaining a tax deduction for the repaid amount becomes more complex. Under “Claim of Right” tax doctrine, you might be eligible to take a tax credit or deduction for the repaid amount. For accurate accounting and to ensure you correctly deduct this repayment, consider consulting with a tax professional.

Need professional assistance with your personal taxes?

Our team of experienced CPAs is here to help! Request a quote today and let us handle your tax needs with expertise and personalized solutions.

Military Retirement Benefits

Military retirement benefits, while complex, play a crucial role in your financial planning. They encompass various forms of income and taxation which can significantly affect your retirement outlook.

Virginia’s Military Retirement Tax Exemption

If you’re a military retiree in Virginia, you have a tax advantage when it comes to your retirement income. Virginia offers a tax exemption on military retirement pay. Specifically, you can deduct up to $10,000 of your military retirement income from your Virginia state income tax, starting at age 55. This amount increases to $20,000 at age 65. This deduction can help lower your overall tax liability, allowing you to retain more of your retirement income.

Calculating Taxable Military Retirement Pay

Your military retirement pay is subject to federal taxes, but how much of it is taxable? This depends on several factors like your total income, tax bracket, and deductions for other expenses. Typically, your “gross income” consists of your pension and any Social Security benefits. You must report this on your income tax return. If you have served in the military, a portion of your pension may not be taxed, depending on your service period and disability status. To check what part of your retirement pay is taxable, use the Retirement – Military Compensation community’s official tools and calculators. Remember that deductions you may have been accustomed to while on active duty, like for uniforms and travel, are not applicable after retirement.

Can My Business Buy My Car? 

When evaluating the option of your business owning a vehicle, you must weigh the potential tax benefits against the financial responsibilities. Understanding the tax deductions and financial implications of purchasing a company car can significantly impact your company’s finances.

Pros and Cons of Company Car Purchase


  • Tax Deductions: Your business can deduct certain expenses related to the company car, such as depreciation, maintenance, repairs, and insurance. This may reduce your company’s overall taxable income.
  • Enhanced Image: A company vehicle can enhance your business’s professional image, particularly if it’s branded with your company logo.


  • Costs: Initial expenses include the purchase price, security deposits, and potentially higher insurance premiums for commercial vehicles.
  • Maintenance and Repairs: You’re responsible for ongoing maintenance and repairs, which can add to the total cost of ownership over time.

Tax Deductions for Business Vehicles

Tax Implications:

  • Deductible Expenses: Operating costs such as gas, insurance, repairs, and maintenance are deductible. Additionally, property tax paid on the vehicle and loan interest can often be deducted.
  • Depreciation: Your business can also claim depreciation on the vehicle as an asset over time, subject to certain limits and regulations.

Understanding Deductions:

  • To deduct related vehicle expenses, you must keep thorough records that distinguish between business and personal use.
  • The IRS sets standard mileage rates or you may calculate actual costs of using your vehicle for business. Remember that these rates and rules can change, so staying updated is crucial.

By carefully considering the tax benefits and associated costs, like mortgage or loan interest regarding a company vehicle, you can make an informed decision that aligns with your business objectives while managing your tax liabilities.

Advanced Tax Strategies

To leverage tax strategies effectively, you need to understand how different income types and deductions can impact your tax obligations.

Navigating Through Tax Brackets

Understanding tax brackets is essential for advanced tax planning. Your marginal tax bracket determines the rate at which your last dollar of income is taxed, influencing decisions surrounding taxable income. For instance, if you’re on the cusp of a higher tax bracket, you might consider increasing your 401(k) contributions to lower your taxable income, keeping you within a lower bracket.

It’s crucial to recognize that not all income is treated equally under federal tax laws. Capital gains, for example, are taxed differently than ordinary income. Long-term capital gains are subject to lower tax rates, which can be advantageous if your investments in assets like real estate have appreciated.

Rental income you receive from a family member must still be reported; however, there are ways to manage this income’s tax implications. You may be able to claim expenses related to the rental and depreciate the property, potentially reducing your taxable income.

Optimizing Deductions and Credits

Strategic management of deductions and credits can reduce your tax liabilities significantly.

  • Standard vs. Itemized Deductions: Choose wisely between the standard deduction and itemizing. If itemizing, deductions like mortgage interest, state and local taxes (SALT), and charitable contributions can reduce your taxable income. Maximizing these can be particularly impactful if you’re self-employed or own a business.
  • Business and Personal Expenses: Certain business expenses are deductible, and in some cases, your business can help in tax planning. For example, if your business requires a vehicle, your business may be able to buy your car, leading to potential deductions for depreciation and operating expenses.

Keep in mind the limitations and phase-outs on certain deductions, which could affect the overall benefits you receive. For example, high-income earners might face a limit on the amount of SALT deductions they can take.

Utilize tax credits wisely as they reduce tax liabilities dollar for dollar. Opportunities such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) or credits for higher education expenses can offer substantial tax savings.

Trace the consequences of additional income, like a sign-on bonus. Such funds are treated as ordinary income and are taxable. Understand also that if you’re in a situation to repay a sign-on bonus, you might need to understand the tax implications and potential deductibility of the repayment.

Remember, for military veterans in Virginia, there is an exemption that allows them not to pay taxes on part of their retirement income, which is critical to factor into your overall strategy.

By incorporating these tactics into your financial planning, you can optimize your tax position and potentially increase your net worth over time.

Need professional assistance with your personal taxes?

Our team of experienced CPAs is here to help! Request a quote today and let us handle your tax needs with expertise and personalized solutions.

Frequently Asked Questions

In this section, you’ll find straightforward answers to common questions about managing multiple 401(k) accounts, tax considerations for rental income from family members, conditions for repaying a sign-on bonus, understanding Virginia’s military retirement tax exemption, the implications of purchasing a vehicle through your business, and the necessary documentation for Virginia’s tax exemption.

How many 401K’s can you have at the same time?

Yes, you can have multiple 401(k) accounts, such as an employer-sponsored 401(k) and a solo 401(k) if you are self-employed. However, there are annual contribution limits that apply across all your accounts.

Do I have to report rental income from a family member?

Rental income, even from a family member, must generally be reported on your tax return. You must report rental income and can deduct applicable expenses, which may lead to a taxable profit or a deductible loss.

Under what circumstances must I repay a sign-on bonus, and what are the typical terms for repayment?

If you do not meet the terms outlined in the sign-on bonus agreement, such as staying at the company for a certain period, you may be required to repay the sign-on bonus. The specific terms, like the repayment schedule and amount, should be specified in the contract.

How does Virginia’s military retirement tax exemption work, and who is eligible?

Virginia provides a tax exemption on military retirement income for qualifying individuals. You may be eligible if you have served in the military and meet certain conditions such as age or disability status.

Should i buy a car through my business or personally and what are the tax implications?

Your business can buy a car that is used for business purposes. The costs may be deductible, but personal use must be documented and accounted for, affecting the tax treatment of the expenses.

Are there any specific forms related to claiming Virginia’s military retirement tax exemption?

To claim Virginia’s military retirement tax exemption, you’d need to complete Form 760 and any pertinent schedules to document your eligibility and adjust your taxable income accordingly.

Disclaimer: This material has been prepared for informational purposes only, and is not intended to provide, and should not be relied on for, tax, legal or accounting advice. You should consult a tax, legal and accounting advisors before engaging in any transaction or submitting any IRS form.
Ramin Mohammad

Ramin Mohammad

Ramin Mohammad is a lawyer and CPA with over 15 years of experience including working in audits, teaching, and in big law. Ramin helps clients on both personal and business related tax issues ranging from a multitude of practice areas including tax structuring, planning and cross jurisdictional taxes. His client-base expands throughout the US and overseas offering tax consulting, tax planning and tax preparation.

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